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Category 2: Industrial and Economic Importance

Industrial and Economic Importance

For centuries, we have depended on the ground beneath our feet – and on geological knowledge and skills – to provide a huge range of resources, to support development of transport systems and other infrastructure, and to power economic growth.

Past economic activity has left a complex legacy with great potential to enrich our understanding of our planet, while the latest infrastructure projects depend on cutting edge geoscience to deliver public benefit.

Click on the links below to find out about each Geosite:

Great Orme

Great Orme Bronze Age Mine

Conwy, Wales

Uncovered in 1987, the Great Orme copper mines are an amazing archaeological find, dating back 4,000 years to the Bronze Age, changing our views about the ancient people of Britain.



Geevor Tin Mine

Cornwall, England

Operational between 1911 and 1990, Geevor Tin Mine is now a museum and heritage centre, left as a living history of a working tin mine.


Channel Tunnel

Straits of Dover, England/France

At 37.9 kilometres, the Channel Tunnel has the longest undersea portion of any tunnel in the world.


The Ironbridge Gorge

Shropshire, England

Formed by the River Severn, the Ironbridge Gorge takes its name from its famous Iron Bridge, the first of its kind in the world, and a monument to the industry that began there.

""The People’s Choice


Allenheads Lead Mining District

Northumberland, England

Allenheads was once an important mining village, particularly in the 18th and 19th centuries. There are many remains of the once flourishing lead mining industry in and around the village.



Kimmeridge Bay

Dorset, England

Kimmeridge Bay is the type locality for the Jurassic age Kimmeridge Clay formation, and provides one of the source rocks for hydrocarbons found in the Wessex and North Sea Basins.


Farringdon Station

London, England

Farringdon Station epitomises the link between the engineering geology and history of London. One of the world’s first underground railway stations, it is now part of the Crossrail and Thameslink projects.


Dinorwig Power Station and Slate Quarry

Snowdonia/Eryri, Wales

The Dinorwig Power Station is a 1,728 MW pumped-storage hydroelectric scheme in Snowdonia national park, comprising of 16 km of tunnels, 1 million tons of concrete, 200,000 tons of cememtn and 4,500 tons of steel.


Bath Spa

Somerset, England

The famous Baths were first built by the Romans in around AD 60, exploiting the area’s geothermal energy. Bath became popular as a Spa Town in the Georgian Era, as did its distinctive architecture crafted from Bath Stone.

National Mining Museum Scotland

The National Mining Museum, Midlothian


The National Mining Museum was created in 1984, to preserve the physical surface remains of Lady Victoria Colliery, an almost complete survival of a major Victorian colliery.

100 Great Geosites


"" The People’s Choice
Winners of the Public Vote

""     Unsung Heroes    
Exceptional Local Geology

"" Spectacular Scenery
Stunning photo stops!

""         Geotourism        
Great for Visitors