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CrossMark, Correction and Retraction Policy

CrossMark policy

CrossMark is a multi-publisher initiative to provide a standard way for readers to locate the current version of a piece of content. By applying the CrossMark logo the Geological Society of London is committing to maintaining the content it publishes and to alerting readers to changes if and when they occur.

Clicking on the CrossMark logo will tell you the current status of a document and will also give you the title of paper, the journal title and the publication date.

Details of our correction and retraction policy follow.

Correction and retraction policy

It is our policy to amend, alter or remove the published scientific record according to the COPE Code of Conduct. This applies to main articles and associated supplementary material.

Whenever it is recognised that a significant inaccuracy, misleading statement or distorted report has been published, it will be corrected with due prominence. This could take various forms:
  • For an item that has been published online a new version with the same DOI will be made available. Only the new version will be available and the html and PDF files will be updated with the corrections.
  • For an item that has been published in a hard copy format, where possible a formal erratum will be printed.
  • If after an appropriate investigation, an item proves to be fraudulent, it will be retracted. 
  • Correction notices and errata are written so that the reader can identify and understand the correction in context with the errors made or why the article is being retracted.
  • Errata have their own unique DOI but are electronically linked with the original electronic publication.
  • Errata are published in a form that enables indexing and abstracting services to identify and link corrections and retractions.
  • A notice of duplicate publication will reference both of the duplicate articles.

Examples of when a correction or retraction should be considered


We will consider issuing a correction if:

  • The scientific record is seriously affected, for example, with regard to the scientific accuracy of published information
  • A small portion of an otherwise reliable publication proves to be misleading (especially because of honest error)
  • The author/contributor/funding list is incorrect (i.e. a deserving author has been omitted, or somebody who does not meet authorship criteria has been included, or there is an error in the funding information section)

We will not usually publish a correction that does not affect the contribution in a material way or if the issue does not significantly impair the reader's understanding of the contribution, e.g. a spelling mistake or grammatical error.


We will consider issuing a retraction notice if:

  • We have clear evidence that the findings are unreliable, either as a result of misconduct (e.g. data fabrication) or honest error (e.g. miscalculation or experimental error)
  • The findings have previously been published elsewhere without proper cross-referencing, permission or justification (i.e. cases of duplicate publication)
  • The publication constitutes plagiarism
  • The publication reports unethical research